Module Description : Transport Engineering and Operations
Module Code(s) : T3/XIMP0005
Module Coordinator : Bani Anvari
Outline :

Basic mechanics of transport operations and implications for safety, flow of traffic on open track, flow at points of conflict or interruption, queueing, alignment and layout of highway links and free-flow junctions, roundabouts and priority junctions, traffic signal control, provision for non-motorised traffic, provision for particular kinds of motor vehicle, road safety engineering, basic operational and engineering requirements for railways, public passenger transport infrastructure and safety, transport system management including use of street space for different purposes.

Aims And Learning Outcomes :

By the end of this module students will:

  • Understand the basic mechanical issues that arise in transport
  • Know and be able to apply simple models of traffic flow
  • Know and be able to apply simple models of queueing
  • Understand the principles of the design and operation of free-flow, priority, roundabout and signal-controlled road junctions
  • Understand issues that arise in providing for different kinds of traffic
  • Understand the elements of road safety engineering
  • Know the basic operational and engineering requirements for railways
  • Know the basic operational and infrastructure requirements for on-street public transport
  • Understand the principles of transport system management
  • Understand issues that arise in providing for transport and non-transport uses of street space


Pre- And Co- Requisites :

Students should be numerate and willing to apply mathematical analysis in a novel context. Specific pre-requisites include knowledge of basic mechanics, elementary calculus, trigonometry and other mathematical techniques that are commonly used at undergraduate level in civil engineering degree programmes.
Assessment :

Coursework Details:
Coursework No.:
Week Set:
Week Due:
Value: (%)
Set By:
1 Exercise on relative risk in travel
2 exercise on traffic flow and queueing
3 Exercise on public transport

Examination Details:
Duration of Exam:
No. of Questions
on Paper:
No. of Questions
to be Attempted:
2 hours






Reading List :

Extensive and detailed lecture notes issued with each lecture (mandatory reading). 

Further references are identified in each set of lecture notes (supplementary reading)


Reading lists

For all topics see relevant chapters of:


Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (DMRB). TSO

INSTITUTION OF HIGHWAYS AND TRANSPORTATION (1997) Transport in the Urban Environment.




Design flows and layout

See DMRB above


Speed-flow relationships

CAREY, M and BOWERS, M (2012) Review of properties of flow-density functions. Transport Reviews, 32(1), 49-73.

DUNCAN, NC (1974) Rural speed/flow relations. TRRL Report LR 651.

DUNCAN, NC (1976) A note on speed/flow/concentration. Traffic Engineering and Control, 17(1), 34-5.

DUNCAN, NC (1979) A further look at speed/flow/concentration. Traffic Engineering and Control, 20(10), 482-3.

GARTNER, NH, MESSER, CJ and RATHI, AK (2001) Traffic Flow Theory: A state of the art report. Monograph. Washington DC: Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences. (Available from: )

GERLOUGH, DL and HUBER, MJ (1975) Traffic flow theory. Washington DC: Transportation Research Board. Special Report 165. (Available from: )

LEE, BH and PJ BROCKLEBANK (1993) Speed flow geometry relationships for rural single-carriageway roads. TRRL Contractor Report CR 319.

LEUTZBACH, W (1988) Introduction to the theory of traffic flow. London: Springer.




Junctions in general

AKELIK, R and M BESLEY (1996) SIDRA 5 user guide. ARRB Transport Research Limited

Burtenshaw, G (2012) JUNCTIONS 8 User Guide. Transport Research Laboratory, Application
Guide AG 67. Crowthorne: TRL.

KIMBER, RM and EM HOLLIS (1979) Traffic queues and delays at road junctions. TRRL Report LR 909.


Priority junctions

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD (1985) Highway Capacity Manual. Special Report 209 (Chapter 10). (This describes the gap-acceptance approach to design.)

KIMBER, RM (1976) The capacity of some major/minor priority junctions. TRRL Report LR 735.

KIMBER, RM and RD COOMBE (1980) The traffic capacity of major/minor priority junctions. TRRL Supplementary Report SR 582.


Priority junctions and roundabouts

MARLOW, M and G MAYCOCK (1982) The effect of zebra crossings on junction entry capacities. TRRL Supplementary Report SR 724.

McDONALD, M, NB HOUNSELL and RM KIMBER (1984) Geometric delay at non-signalised intersections. TRRL Supplementary Report SR 810.



BLACKMORE, FC (1970) Capacity of single-level intersections. RRL Report LR 356.

KIMBER, RM (1980) The traffic capacity of roundabouts. TRRL Report LR 942.

SEMMENS, MC (1982) The capacity of some grade-separated roundabout entries. TRRL Supplementary Report SR 721.

ALLSOP, RE (1998) Analysis of traffic conditions at congested roundabouts In: Griffiths, JD (Ed) Mathematics in transport planning and control.

Proceedings 3rd IMA International Conference on Mathematics in Transport Planning and Control, Cardiff , April 1998 , 1-16. Oxford: Pergamon [but ask the author for a copy free from extensive wordprocessing failures!]

AKELIK, R (1998) Roundabouts: capacity and performance analysis. Research Report ARR 321. ARRB Transport Research Limited


Traffic signals

WEBSTER, FV and BM COBBE (1966) Traffic Signals. HMSO.

AKELIK, R (1981) Traffic signals: capacity and timing analysis. Australian Road Research Board Research Report ARR 123.

ALLSOP, RE (1972) Estimating the traffic capacity of a signalised road junction. Transportation Research, 6(3), 245-255.

KIMBER, RM and MC SEMMENS (1982) Traffic signal junctions: a track appraisal of conventional and novel designs. TRRL Report LR 1063.

SIMMONITE, BF (1985) LINSIG: a computer program to aid traffic signal design and assessment. Traffic Engineering and Control, 26(6), 310-315.

KIMBER, RM, M McDONALD and NB HOUNSELL (1985) Passenger car units in saturation flows: concept, definition, derivation. Transportation Research, 19B(1), 39-61.

KIMBER, RM, M McDONALD and NB HOUNSELL (1986) The prediction of saturation flows for road junctions controlled by traffic signals. TRRL Research Report RR 67.

BURROW, IJ (1987) OSCADY: a computer program to model capacities, queues and delays at isolated traffic signal junctions. TRRL Research Report RR 106.

SILCOCK, JP and AP SANG (1990) SIGSIGN: a phase-based optimisation program for individual signal-controlled junctions. Traffic Engineering and Control, 31(5), 297-298.

LINES, CJ and MR CRABTREE (1990) The use of TRANSYT at signalised roundabouts. TRRL Research Report RR 274.


Area traffic control

VINCENT, RA, AI MITCHELL and DI ROBERTSON (1980) User guide to TRANSYT, version 8. TRRL Report LR 888.

WOOD, K (1993) Urban traffic control, systems review. TRL Project Report PR 41.


Traffic-responsive control

VINCENT, RA and JR PEIRCE (1988) MOVA: traffic-responsive self-optimising signal control for isolated intersections. TRRL Research Report RR 170.

HUNT, RB, DI ROBERTSON, RD BRETHERTON and RI WINTON (1981) SCOOT: a traffic-responsive method of coordinating signals. TRRL Report LR 1014.